During aging, the loss of metabolic homeostasis drives a myriad of pathologies. A central regulator of cellular energy, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), orchestrates organismal metabolism. However, direct genetic manipulations of the AMPK complex in mice have, so far, produced detrimental phenotypes. Here, as an alternative approach, we alter energy homeostasis by manipulating the upstream nucleotide pool. Using the turquoise killifish, we mutate APRT, a key enzyme in AMP biosynthesis, and extend the lifespan of heterozygous males. Next, we apply an integrated omics approach to show that metabolic functions are rejuvenated in old mutants, which also display a fasting-like metabolic profile and resistance to high-fat diet. At the cellular level, heterozygous cells exhibit enhanced nutrient sensitivity, reduced ATP levels, and AMPK activation. Finally, lifelong intermittent fasting abolishes the longevity benefits. Our findings suggest that perturbing AMP biosynthesis may modulate vertebrate lifespan and propose APRT as a promising target for promoting metabolic health.